Su-35BM/T-10BM : The last Flanker.
Su-35BM will be the last developed Flanker. An final upgrade, final variant. Actually, the designation is quite confusing, since Su-35 already exists in Russian Air Force. Su-35 was the export designation for upgraded Su-27, called Su-27M, internal Sukhoi designation T-10M. Su-27M gave baseline Flanker new avionics, as well as precision air-to-ground capability. Only five of these are in service with VVS (Russian Air Force), with 237th regiment based at Kubinka Air Base. VVS chose another path instead; to incorporate technologies tested in Su-35/T-10M, together with those of Su-30MK, into an standard upgrade project for the baseline Flanker, the Su-27SM. The Su-35 designation was also used for Su-37, dubbed as “Terminator”. Aircraft was a testbed for 2D thrust-vectoring engines, mounted on Su-35/T-10M.
The new Su-35BM is going to fill the interim gap between standard 4+ generation Su-27SM in service today, and PAK-FA, 5th generation fighter in developement stage. Thus, Su-35BM is designated as 4++ generation fighter, together with new MiG-35. Official first flight will commence late this year, Sukhoi officialy stated that year 2007 is the ending year of all work on Su-35BM. After MAKS 2007, Su-35BM will be put on state trials. The aircraft should be ordered by VVS, after all, they’re the ones who supported the initial beggining of work on the BM, after successful Su-27SM program.
Differences from the Su-27M
One of the most noticeable differences from the Su-27M/Su-35 is that the canards have been removed, although there is an option for them to be added, such as on the Su-30 series. This new airframe design reduces the aircraft's radar cross section
. The aircraft's engines have also been improved to the 117S and the air intakes are enlarged. A probe and drogue in-flight refueling system has been added as well.
Aside from its obvious physical differences, not only have the Su-35BM's avionics received significant improvements, but they are also entirely of Russian origin. The Su-35BM is equipped with an improved passive electronically scanned array N035 Irbis radar system, as well as additional rear mounted radar in its shortened tail sting, later production will use IRBIS-E Radar an Improved N035 with higher peak power and better ECM characteristic. An L175M Khibiny-M self-defense electronic countermeasures and electronic warfare system has also been installed, future production will include the new Irbis-E Radar with more powerful search ability.
The cockpit has been redesigned with two LCD screens and compatibility with helmet-mounted displays. The Su-35BM's software has added compatibility with new weapons systems. Other new avionics include a long-range information targeting and jam-resistant datalink capability and an electronic reconnaissance system. Newer, lighter systems have been added (including a brand new FBO (Fly by Optics) flight-control system and OLS). The avionics are integrated with the GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system.
Sukhoi considers it to be 4++ generation, but one expert suggests that with the totality of characteristics it satisfies the requirements for a 5th generation fighter, like the F-22 Raptor.
On 14 April 2009 one Su-35BM prototype fighter crashed during a high speed ground test. The test pilot escaped unharmed after ejecting. According to Sukhoi, the fighter's brakes failed during landing, resulting in the speeding plane going off the runway and the left engine catching fire.
Official description from KnAAPO (manufacturer) follows : “Su-35 is designed to gain air superiority through manned and unmanned aircraft destroying, by guided missiles, in medium and long range engagements and dogfights; to destroy ground and surface targets by all type of weapon, as well as destroy the enemy ground infrastructure facilities located very far from the base airfields, heavily protected by active AAD system”
The most important Su-35BM/T-10BM characteristics are : supreme flight performance (superagility), long range information targeting systems, jam-proof datalinks for squadron or ground control operations, high performance short, medium and long range missiles of both anti-air and anti-ground type, carried externally on fourteen hardpoints, sophisticated EW/ECM/ER systems, radar cross-section reduction, high-power sensors with adequate computing power and sensory fusion technique, cockpit with large LCD multi-function displays, and an in-flight refuelling probe.
Su-35BM is more alike standard Su-27S, than Su-35/T-10M. It has no canards, has smaller fins, tailcone is smaller than those found on T-10M. High-lift surfaces are larger, big flaperons occupying complete wing trailing edge. Airframe structure is more “refined”, with usage of RAM coating and new all-composites material. Latter is said to grant 20% of weight reduction and an RCS signature suppression. Su-35BM also has larger air intakes.
Engines that were planned for T-10BM are Saturn AL-41F1, with supercruise capability, rated at 15 metric tons of thrust each. This family of engines will power PAK-FA too, and are going to power Su-34 Fullback long range strike aircraft. The AL-41 series was built to feed power-hungry aircraft such as MiG’s MFI (1.42/1.44), and S-37/Su-47 Berkut. It was stated that first versions of these engines powered the MFI, but, recent statements from NPO Saturn pointed out, that engines won’t be ready for the first preproduction versions of PAK-FA. Thus, it’s viable to concur that Su-35BM won’t have it’s first flight with AL-41F1. To note : the MFI has flown on AL-31’s, while the Berkut was fitted with D-30F-6 engines, powerplant from MiG-31.
However, NPO Saturn managed to develop heavily upgraded AL-31F engines, and designated them AL-41F1A, or article 117S. The designation of AL-41(X) notes that thrust is closer to projected AL-41F series, but the AL-41F1A’s feature old, refubrished core. The AL-41F’s will have all-new core.
AL-41F1A are equipeed with three-dimensional thrust vectoring nozzles, too, so both of Russian 4++ generation aircraft will be 3D TVC capable, if we count the fact that Morskaya Osa engines can be upgraded with all-axis nozzles. As it’s stated on official sites, AL-41F1A’s have 14.5 tons of thrust each, that means 29 tons of thrust for Su-35BM. Since some early sources claimed that airframe material enhancement reduced Su-35BM weight by 20%, aircraft could have an greatly increased thrust-to-weight ratio, ensuring superb combat and flight performance.
Sensors and avionics :
Irbis-E radar uses electronically scanned array (ESA). It’s a multifunctional radar system, working in X-band, holded on two-axis hydraulic drive. Radar uses EKVS-E BTsVM Solo35 computing system. The Irbis-E can track 30 different targets, while retaining continous airspace scan, eg. track-while-scan mode. Tikhomirov NIIPThe fire control system can simultaneously guide two semi-active radar guided missiles. used in conjuction with active radar guided missiles, this number is eight. In air to surface operations, radar is capable of mapping land and sea targets, and detection of targets in real-beam, Doppler, and SAR modes. Four ground targets can be tracked at the same time, while two can be attacked at the same time, too. Since Irbis-E has enormeous power output, up to 20 kilowatts, it can detect an “standard” target (RCS at 3 square meters) 400 kilometers away. Normally, that figure is given for head-on aspect, in tail-on aspect it drops down to 150 km. Stealth targets (RCS at 0.01 square meters) can be detected at 90 km range. Irbis-E is also capable of target identification, and can conduct simultaneous air-to-air and air-to-ground operations.
Su-35BM also has rearward radar system, to locate and track targets behind aircraft. Rear radar is located in tailcone. It’s still not known what system is going to use; Tikhomirov NIIP suggested it’s Osa type ESA radar for this task, but has also revealed it’s work on active-array radars that could fill this task, too. That information was given by NIIP to the public two years ago. The rear radar system is not something new for the Russian design bureaus; Su-35/T-10M features Phazotron N012 in the tailcone, MiG’s 1.42/1.44 MFI featured Phazotron N015, and the Su-34 Fullback features Leninets V005 tailcone radar system.
As every Russian 4th gen fighter has optronic infrared search and track system, Su-35BM will naturally feature that too. OLS-35 can track four different IR signatures at once. Maximum detection range for tail-on aspect is 90 km, and for head-on 50 km. The laser rangefinder can measure distance up to 20 km against aerial targets, and up to 30 km against ground based targets.Su-35BM
Electronic warfare system, the KNIRTI L175M Khibiny-M, is capable of accurate detection of the threats, threat coordinate mapping, and it’s also responsible for jamming signal generation and emmision replication/imitation, via wing-tip carried pods. The system has a separate display in the Su-35BM cockpit. The L175M, together with frontal and back radars and optronic complex is hooked up to “sensory fusion” package. Khibiny can also provide guidance for passive-radiation guided missiles, such as R-27EP and the new long-range type of AAM. Su-35BM also features approx. 150 aerials on it’s airframe. Apart from standard RWR (radar warning receiever), Su-35BM also has laser emission warning system, MAWS (missile approach warning system), and standard chaff / flare dispenser.
Powerful computer system will control all those sensory elements, giving information to the pilot in unique interface; via the two large LCD MFD’s found in cockpit, and shown in pilot’s helmet mounted display as well. Cockpit is summarized in MAK-35 system; two 22.5×30 cm AMLCD’s, IKSh-1M widescreen HUD, and one back-up multifunctional display. The nav / attack functions are the responsibilty of KRNPO-35, and the plane is fitted with laser-gyro system, LINS-2000.
The aircraft features inertial / sattelite navigation systems, radio navigation system, digital maps, optical fiber and digital communication multiplex comm systems. The comm system has two UHF/VHF radios, Link-16 capacity, and encryption capability. FBW has quadruple redundancy, and the engines support full authority digital engine control, FADEC.
Su-35BM, as an true multirole fighter, will have both air-to-air, air-to-ground, and anti-ship weaponry. Whole current pallete of A2G precision missiles and bombs will be supported on Su-35BM. Regarding air-to-air, the aircraft has an Archer, Alamo, and Adder family capability (R-73, R-27, R-77). Su-35BM will also be able to launch ultra-long range active radar missiles. The type of this weapon shown on the Su-35BM model was Novator KS-172S-1 AAM. The same missile has been presented on the displayed Su-35BM at MAKS 2007 airshow. The KS-172S-1 has an engagement range over 300 kilometers, can be used against any kind of aircraft flying from 3 meters altitude to 30 kilometers altitude, up to 4000 kilometers per hour of speed, and up to 12G. The only thing that’s confirmed is that Su-35BM will have ultralong range radar missile engagement capability; KS-172S-1 has not been asured. The other ULR AAM in Russian developement is Vympel K-37/R-37M. It’s an upgrade of MiG-31M’s R-37 missile, which has been sucessfully tested against targets 300 kilometers away.
Other Vympel’s designs are not confirmed either; such as ramjet, thermal, or antiradiation variant of R-77. This capability could be easily added at some future point. Vympel also stated that it has finished working on the upgraded variant of antiradiation R-27P. Since L175M is chosen for the standard electronic warfare module for all new Russian aircraft, R-27P could be connected to work in conjuction with Su-35BM’s EW unit. Both short and long burn variants of the antiradiation R-27, eg. the 27P and the 27EP, are on the payload list.
The misterious unspecified long-range anti-ground, anti-ship and anti-radar missiles are still a matter of debate, but several sources indicate that GRAU-coded 3M14AE and 3M54AE missiles are the unspecified weapons. Both missiles are produced by NPO Novator, and Sukhoi has a long tradition of partnership with this design bureau; this raises the issue of long-range AAM too, since Sukhoi is clearly pushing the Novator’s KS-172S-1 design, while the VVS wants Vympel’s R-37M for MiG-31 deep modernization variant. In any case, Russia won’t use two similiar types of AAM’s in the same time period, so the R-72 could be used for export, while the R-37M would be used on domestic version of Su-35BM.
3M14AE and 3M54AE are the missiles from “Kalibr” system, developed from naval “Club” system. The first is LACM, while the other is standard anti-ship missile. The unspecified anti-radar missile could turn up as new Raduga X-58UShE. It works in wide-band regime, and has a maximum range of 200 km. The sole-carried large ASM/AGM is suspected to be Yakhont-M, GRAU coded 3M55A. Yakhont-M is the upgraded export variant of P-800 Onyx missile. Original Onyx has the range of 300 km.
Su-35BM is also fitted with standard 30mm gun of Flanker family; Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-301.
* Crew: 1
* Length: 21.9 m (72.9 ft)
* Wingspan: 15.3 m (50.2 ft)
* Height: 5.90 m (19.4 ft)
* Wing area: 62.0 m² (667 ft²)
* Empty weight: 18,400 kg (40,550 lb)
* Loaded weight: 25,300 kg (56,660 lb)
* Max takeoff weight: 34,500 kg (76,060 lb)
* Powerplant: 2× Saturn 117S/AL-41F1A turbofans
o Dry thrust: 8,800 kgf (86.3 kN, 19,400 lbf) each
o Thrust with afterburner: 14,500 kgf (142 kN, 31,900 lbf) each
* Maximum speed: Mach 2.25 (2,390 km/h, 1,500 mph) at altitude
* Range: 3,600 km (1,940 nmi) ; (1,580 km, 850 nmi near ground level)
* Ferry range: 4,500 km (2,430 nmi) with external fuel tanks
* Service ceiling: 18,000 m (59,100 ft)
* Rate of climb: >280 m/s (>55,100 ft/min)
* Wing loading: 408 kg/m² (84.9 lb/ft²)
* Thrust/weight: 1.14
* Irbis-E passive phased array radar
* Internal 30 mm GSh-301 gun with 150 rounds.
* 8000 kg, distribute on 12 pylons for a variety of ordinance including air-to-air missiles, air-to-surface missiles, rockets, and bombs
* AA-10 Alamo: R-27R, R-27ER, R-27T, R-27ET, R-27EP
* AA-12 Adder: R-77, and the proposed R-77M1, R-77T
* AA-11 Archer: R-73E, R-73M, R-74M
* AS-17 Krypton: Kh-31A, Kh-31P Anti-Radiation Missile
* AS-20: Kh-59
* AS-14 Kedge: Kh-29T, Kh-29L
* KAB-500 Laser-guided bomb
* KAB-1500 Laser-guided bomb
* LGB-250 laser-guided bomb
* FAB-250 250kg unguided bombs
* FAB-500 500kg unguided bombs
* S-25LD laser-guided rocket, S-250 unguided rocket
* B-8 unguided S-8 rocket pods
* B-13 unguided S-13 rocket pods
DEMO SUKHOI 35BM.
DALAM PENGADAAN ALUTSISTA TNI AU HARUSNYA PEMERINTAH RI MENGIKUTI PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI