CUTAWAY AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE.
The use of state-of-the-art acoustic protection systems and original engineering innovations on Amur-class submarines will make them several times quieter than Kilo-class submarines. Amurs are well-suited to their underwater environment.
Two diesel-electric submarines of a new, fourth postwar generation have been laid down at the Admiralteiskiye Verfi state-owned shipyard in St. Petersburg. One submarine (Project 677 Lada), designated Sankt Peterburg, is being built for Russia's Navy, and the other (Amur-1650) is intended for export.
Both submarines are part of the same project and differ only in customer requirements and operational conditions. The submarines will have high submerged cruising range and endurance, combat efficiency and reliability, and low acoustic signature.
In the Jan/Feb '95 issue, Military Parade described in detail Amur-class submarines with a normal displacement of 550 to 1,850 m3, which were developed by the Rubin Central Marine Design Bureau. The magazine quoted the Project's General Designer Yuri Kormilitsin as saying: "The submarine has been conceived as a kind of an underwater sea hunter, capable of destroying any target – surface naval ships, transport vessels, or submarines – using torpedoes, missiles, mines and also with the help of frogmen."
The Rubin-designed submarine of the previous generation (Project 877, Kilo class) was described in the West as a "black hole in the ocean" for its low level of noise which prevented its detection. The use of state-of-the-art acoustic protection systems and original engineering innovations on Amur-class submarines will make them several times quieter than Kilo-class submarines. Amurs are well-suited to their underwater environment. Their sonar equipment includes highly sensitive direct-
listening transducers at the forward end and a towed transducer array.
Control of the submarine, its armament and equipment is highly automated and carried out from operators' consoles concentrated in the main control room.
Admiralteiskie Verfi has vast experience in building such vessels. The shipyard's Director General Vladimir Alexandrov said at the laying-down ceremony that the Sankt Peterburg is the 300th submarine built by Admiralteiskie Verfi. The shipyard's vessels are eagerly purchased by foreign navies. In November and December 1997 alone, two submarines (Projects 636 and 877 EKM) were turned over to foreign customers.
The construction of the Amur-1650 submarine has been made possible owing to efforts of the Morskaya Tekhnika (Marine Equipment) financial and industrial group, which includes Admiralteiskie Verfi, the Rubin Central Marine Design Bureau, Incombank, and the Central Company of the Morskaya Tekhnika FIG. The financial and industrial group is funding research and development efforts and the purchase of materials and accessories.
"The participation of commercial structures in the funding of military-technical cooperation projects is not something new," the Director General of the Central Company of the Morskaya Tekhnika FIG Igor Bakhmetyev said. "We can recall the supply of MiG fighters abroad. Now our task is to organize optimum financial schemes to make it possible to conduct research and development and purchase the required equipment for the Amur's export version. On the whole, the pooling of budgetary and extra-budgetary funds for the construction of submarines of a new generation for the Russian Navy and for export will help save a lot of money."
At the laying-down ceremony, the privilege to embed the plaque on the Sankt Peterburg submarine was granted to the Commander-in-Chief of Russia's Navy Admiral Vladimir Kuroyedov and St. Petersburg Deputy Mayor Yuri Antonov. The plaque of the Amur-1650 submarine was laid down by the President of the Morskaya Tekhnika FIG, the General Designer and Head of the Rubin Central Marine Design Bureau Academician Igor Spassky, and a departmental head of the Rosvoorouzhenie State Corporation, Victor Kapustin.
On the basis of the long-term experience of operating diesel-electric submarines of projects 613 ("Whiskey"), 641 ("Foxtrot"), 641Б ("Tango"), class “Kilo” by Russian Navy and navies of other states in different areas of the world ocean CDB ME “Rubin has developed the submarines of the 4th generation of the class “Amur” (“Amur 1650” and “Amur 950”).
The principle feature of “Amur” class submarine is the capability of striking salvo missile blows at different targets. The sonar signature level of the submarines of this class is several times less in comparison with “Kilo” class submarines which are considered at present the most silent in the world. The submarines of “Амур” class are equipped with radio-electronic weapons of the new generation created on the basis of the latest achievements in the field of radio-electronics. The provision is made for the outfitting of the submarines of this class with AIP on the basis of fuel cells thus permitting to increase considerably the submerged endurance and cruise range. Such plant with the stock of reagents is located in the special compartment-module which can be incorporated into the submarine during construction or in the course of repairs or modernization.
The submarines of “Amur” class can operate in all areas of the World Ocean except the areas with solid ice cover, in all weather conditions, in shallow and deep water areas.
In the course of creating "Amur" class submarines the equipment and weapons of Russian as well as of the customer-country production , or the equipment of the 3d countries can be used.
Submarine Amur 1650. Sectional View.
Main control room of “Amur 1650” submarine.
The Project 677 or Lada-class submarines have been designed to engage surface ships and submarines as well as to perform surveillance, mine laying, and special operations forces deployment missions. Long range anti-ship missiles, rockets, torpedoes and mines can be fired from the torpedo tubes at the bow. In addition, a highly efficient sonar system and reduced acoustic (noise) emissions will provide improved attack and survivability characteristics over preceding conventionally powered Russian/Soviet submarine classes.
The Project 677 is deemed as the follow-on to successful Project 877 and 636 (Kilo-class) submarines. Acoustic stealthiness has been a major concern in the design of the project 677. According to Rubin, the ship features a new efficient antisonar coating of the hull. The capability to engage multiple targets simultaneously using advanced missiles rather than torpedoes, its large endurance and cruising range, and its suitability for open ocean and shallow waters make the more lethal conventional submarines ever built.
The entire ship has been automated to facilitate operations managing them from submarine's main control room. An Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) system based on oxygen-hydrogen fuel cells is being offered for Amur-class submarines as option to achieve extended immersion endurance. The new diesel-electric propulsion system is arranged in a modular compartment which can be plugged into the basic submarine. A radio electronic equipment of a new generation, variable-speed permanent-magnet propulsion motor and storage battery with increased service life are provided to the 4th generation Russian non-nuclear submarine.
The Amur designation is applied for boats of the same class intended for the export market. The sonar complex is outfitted with a highly sensitive passive array, the area of which exceeds the area of array on the previous generation submarines by several times. The 4th generation Amur-class submarines can differ in customer requirements and operational conditions. Therefore, this means some changes in the submarine equipment and machinery such as propulsion system, sonar, etc depending on customer requests.
As of 2004, the Russian Navy remains the only Project 677 operator with a single ship on order. The Saint-Petersburg submarine, an Amur 1650-class boat, was laid down in December 1997 at Admiralty Shipyards, and despite lack of funds, was expected to enter service with the Russian Navy in the 2005-2006 timeframe. Nevertheless, the Russian Navy priority are nuclear-powered submarines with Amur/Lada-class intended for the export market and secondary missions within the Russian Navy.
The Amur 1650/Lada submarine has been designed to operate in the littoral environment, in deep water and shallow water areas, and in any climate worldwide. It features six 533mm torpedo tubes with 18 weapons between torpedoes, mines, missiles and rockets at the bow compartment. According to Russian reports, it is one of the most quiet and lethal submarines ever built. It can be outfitted with custom equipment depending on customer requirements. These ships may be fitted with vertical launch missile silos.
In June 2005 Saint-Petersburg was preparing for factory sea trials. On 28 July 2005, Rubin announced that a second Lada project submarine for the Russian Navy was laid down at FSUE Admiral Shipyards. The new submarine was named Kronshtadt and was the first production series submarine. This boat should be commissioned by 2009 or 2010. The Saint Petersburg was accepted by the Russian Navy in October 2006 to conduct sea trials. It will be officially commissioned in 2010 fitted with an advanced anti-sonar hull coating, an extended cruising range, and advanced anti-ship and anti-submarine weaponry, including Club-S cruise missile systems. These features were not available in October 2006. The Russian Navy plans call for the commissioned of eight boats replacing Kilo-class submarines in the Baltic and Black Sea fleets.
Accommodation: Crew 35
Number of Weapons: 18
Dimensions: Length 66.8 m, Width 7.1 m
Weights: Max Weight 1,765 t
Performance: Endurance 45 day, Max Operating Depth 300 m (984 ft), Max Range 11,112 km (6,000 nm), Top Speed 11 mps (21 kt)
Other: Torpedo Tubes 6